|Volume 59 Number 1
The Peabody School of Library Science:
Contributions to Librarianship in Tennessee
Celia Walker, Director, Peabody Library
Peabody College at Vanderbilt University
When the Peabody Library School began offering classes in 1919, it was one of four schools of higher education providing library science instruction in the South [i]. Melvil Dewey (1851-1931), whom we remember for creating a classification system for accessing library resources, founded the first school of library instruction at Columbia University in 1887 (which moved in 1889 to New York State University, Albany), only 34 years before Peabody began to offer library instruction. Prior to 1887, all library instruction was conducted within libraries through apprenticeship or in-service. This system of instruction would continue for many years [Lynch, 2008].
The Peabody Library School -- or the Peabody School of Library Science, (PSLS) as it came to be called -- was formally founded in 1928 to train school librarians, initially offering courses in reference, library methodology, and book selection. But the vision of the School's administrators was always much broader, and the School's mission quickly expanded to include academic and public librarianship, offering a bachelor's degree, master's degree, and eventually the Specialist in Education degree (Ed.S). While the emphasis within the program was on the professional degree, undergraduates could choose to minor in library science and obtain the library media certification.
Over its 60-year history, the School's impact on the state's libraries was significant: thousands of students graduated, finding placement in libraries across Tennessee and outside the state; students visited and worked in libraries and publishing houses as part of their curriculum requirements; professionals came to teach at the school, particularly in the summer months, providing Tennessee's librarians opportunities for collaboration and exchange of ideas; distance classes established in Memphis and outside of the state brought instruction to areas without a formal program; and school faculty and students published in college, state, and national journals, most notably contributing numerous articles to Tennessee Libraries and to the Peabody Journal of Education. Their contributions to Tennessee's libraries continued to live on long after the school closed its doors in 1988.
During the last half of the twentieth century, the School's outreach to Japan through the work of Frances Neel Cheney, to Korea, through the work of Robert Burgess, and the collaborative relationships with Latin America in the 1970s under Edwin Gleaves made the Peabody School of Library Science an internationally recognized name in the field. And while the School's place within the international story of librarianship has yet to be fully told, our emphasis in this article will be on the School's legacy in Tennessee.
Research for this article was drawn from the School's archives, which are housed in the University Archives of the Jean and Alexander Heard Library at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. The Archives include copies of the Kat-Logs, the School's student-run newsletter which was published most often as a quarterly bulletin, the Library School Bulletin, published yearly but often accompanied by a summer edition, the Peabody College Yearbooks, containing the curriculum, faculty and staff, and related notes from the library school and the Peabody Library, school administrative materials, and the papers of many of the faculty. Also consulted were the numerous books and articles written by the School's faculty which were published widely. An oral history was conducted with former director Dr. Edwin Gleaves for the Voices of Vanderbilt repository. My thanks go to Dr. Gleaves for his helpful recollections. Additionally, I would like to thank the Special Collections staff at the Jean and Alexander Heard Library, including Molly Dohrmann, Teresa Gray, Henry Shipman, and David David Stringfellow. My thanks also go to Jacob Thornton, GIS Coordinator for the Heard Library, who created the maps in this paper.
Location, Location, Location
From its inception, the School had an ideal location for class work, housed in the newly completed Peabody Library designed in the classical style by Edward L. Tilton of New York. Built with a gift of $180,000 from the Carnegie Foundation, the library was part of a "great leap forward" on the Peabody campus, jumpstarted in 1909 with funding from philanthropist George Peabody, which allowed the School to move from the College Hill area to its present location on 21st Avenue. That same year the Peabody State Normal School changed its name to the George Peabody College for Teachers (GPCT).
The College was deeply grateful for Carnegie's gift and expectations were high for its usefulness:
With the completion and occupation of this capacious library building, the books garnered for nearly a century and a half have become a magnet to teachers of the entire South. The library will become a repository of every kind of human knowledge where thousands will flock for educational research. It will become a Mecca toward which those who turn their faces in thoughtfulness, when they pray, will thank Providence for the great benefactor whose bounty made it possible. [McMurray, 1919, p.8]
Figure 1. Peabody Library
Construction of new public schools in the South had increased demand for trained school librarians [Gleaves and Tucker, 1983] and Peabody was an ideal setting for a library school because of its location and its association with a school for teachers. For most of its years of operation, the library school was housed on the top floor of the four-story library, occupying approximately 8,000 square feet. The layout included administrative offices, a group faculty office, two classrooms, a reading room, professional library room and model school library room, a typing room, and a cataloging laboratory. Additional space was available on the first floor's bibliographic laboratory in the southeast wing of the Joint University Library (now Jean and Alexander Heard Library’s General Library Building) [Gitler, 1965].
The Evolution of Standards in Library Schools
Professor Charles Holmes Stone, librarian at Peabody between 1919 and 1927, was the driving force behind library science offerings in the early years of the Peabody Library School. From the beginning, Stone planned for a full complement of courses leading to a library degree, as evident in the college's Type Studies and Lesson Plans of 1919, which noted instructional offerings with this caveat: "It is hoped, however, that within the next year or two a regular school [of library science] can be established which will offer a one year course of study" [McMurray, 1919, p.27]. Stone was supported in these efforts by GPCT President Bruce Ryburn Payne.
Each year, additional courses were offered: reference, library methods and book selection, and children's literature were added in 1921, followed by school library methods, reference books, catalogs and indexes. Course offerings continued to expand in the 1920s to include classes on government publication, library administration, and advanced classification and cataloging. For a number of years beginning in 1923, George Peabody College for Teachers required all freshmen to take a course in library usage. But the goal of a full library program was slow to be realized. Stone, who was an active member of the Southeastern Library Association (SELA) and served as president of the Tennessee Library Association (TLA) from 1920-1922, understood the need for standards for school libraries and their connection with the growth of library schools.
The Southern Association established basic library standards in 1912, adding collection requirements in 1922. Following on the heels of a landmark survey funded by the Carnegie Corporation conducted in 1920 and 1921 by Charles C. Williamson, the American Library Association created the Board of Education for Librarianship (BEL) in 1924 to establish consistent standards for school librarian training in library schools. In 1927, the “New Library Standards for Secondary Schools” expanded the school library standards to include staffing, budgetary, instructional, organizational, and equipment metrics. The standards were revised in 1930 and implemented in 1933. The BEL also adopted college library standards in 1928 and created instructional standards for teacher-librarians in 1929 [Gleaves and Tucker, 1983].
Throughout his tenure, Stone taught most of the courses offered, which expanded from one (general introduction to library science) in 1919 to nine by the time of his departure to the North Carolina College for Women (which merged in 1933 with University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) in 1927. In 1928, the Peabody School of Library Science was formally established under the leadership of Director Jackson Edmund Town [ii].
In 1930, the Peabody Library School received a three-year $80,000 gift from the General Board of Education to expand courses in library science. The funds were used to hire "four teachers in winter and seven in summer, offering both first and second year training, going beyond mere instruction in school librarianship into the field of research" [Towne, 1931, p. 166]. Also in 1930, a survey of southern high school libraries commissioned by the Southern Association was released showing that 94.1 percent of Tennessee high schools measured below the new standards in one or more area. Doak Sheridan Campbell, a recent graduate of the George Peabody College for Teachers who conducted the survey, published an article in 1933 in the Peabody Journal of Education on the need for an accredited program for training school librarians [iii].
By 1935, the standards required all new high schools to hire professionally trained librarians to manage their libraries [Wilson and Hermanson, 1998]. The inclusion of staffing requirements was critical for the evolution of library schools in the South. At the same time, faculty in higher education were expanding general course readings from single textbooks to print reserves, demanding more service and more books from their libraries. Each of these activities as well as the dramatic increase in academic publication resulted in increased demand for trained librarians [Kuhlman, 1942].
Twelve library schools were accredited in 1924 [iv]. By 1930, the year of Peabody Library School's provisional accreditation, there were 26 accredited schools, four of which were located in the South [v]. In 1931, Peabody Library School’s first year curriculum for training in educational librarianship was provisionally accredited by the Board of Education for Librarianship of ALA. The School was fully accredited as a senior undergraduate program for school librarians in February 1932 and was accredited for its graduate professional program in January 1936. The library school added a “professional unit” in library science in 1935, designed to address the new standards. The new offering supplemented the existing B.S. in L.S. program which was created for students who planned to work in four-year colleges, teachers colleges, and junior colleges and larger high school libraries.
If the 1930s was an era of evaluation and accreditation, the 1940s was a time of curriculum change and the rise of critical leadership among the School's administrators, as faculty endeavored to address professional standards and national demand for trained librarians. A common thread of professional discussion in the 1940s was the need to balance training in basic library skills with managerial expertise and academic knowledge to address the needs of both small and large libraries. Curriculum changes would continue throughout the run of the School, as first an explosion of academic publishing and then mechanization required librarians to expand their areas of expertise. Edward A. Wright, Acting Director from 1943 to 1945, conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the curriculum by surveying its graduates in the fall of 1941, when Wright took a newly created Professorship of Library Education funded by the General Education Board [Wright, 1945].
In 1940 the School's Bachelor of Science in Library Science (B.S.L.S.) was accredited for the training of public and college librarians. Fall 1941 marked the beginning of the standard two quarter core curriculum required of all degree candidates. These courses were selected to introduce the student to the primary tasks of the field (cataloging, reference, acquisition, and circulation and administration) and to teach the core principles of service. All courses were examined and altered and some courses were dropped or added. [PSLS Yearbook,1949-50, p. 67] Most importantly, Wright's report called for a second year of courses to address the demand for advanced work in the field.
Figure 2. Francis Keese Wynkoop Drury, seen teaching here, served as Director of the Nashville Public Library and was a recognized expert in book selection [PSLS Yearbook, 1948-49, p.134]
The master's program was approved as the basic library degree in the spring of 1945 by the Peabody Library School faculty, the Peabody College Faculty Committee on Planning and Policy, and the Peabody College Committee on Graduate Instruction. Thus, in the third quarter, students could select elective courses to begin a broad understanding in a specialization in the field of school, college or public librarianship. During a fourth quarter, courses in an approved graduate-related field were offered. This flexibility in the curriculum was unusual and a strength of the Peabody program:
"...Peabody Library School can point with pride to the thoroughness and scope of its offerings in the bibliographic and materials field and the stature of the faculty member primarily responsible for these areas. Another signal feature of the Peabody curriculum is the flexibility allowed through the option given to qualified students to develop special problems in librarianship when their experience and background suggests this as being appropriate." [Gitler, 1965, p. 75]
In 1955, the masters program was accredited by the Board of Education for Librarianship. PSLS was at this time the only accredited school of its kind in Tennessee and one of 39 accredited library masters programs in America. In 1964, the M.L.S degree became the standard at the Peabody Library School.
Contributions to the Perceived Value of Library Instruction
Louis Shores, director of the library school from 1933 to 1946 [vi] (with a brief hiatus for his call to service during World War II), urged college administrators to promote library instruction through his Library Education column published in the Peabody Journal of Education in the mid-1930s. The library school's access to this publication, which was and is an important vehicle for teacher education in the nation, allowed the school faculty to have a voice in the national debate. Shores was part of a national effort to address the need for library instruction through the teacher-librarian model for secondary schools and the dean of instruction model for colleges [Kuhlman, 1942]. Several Peabody Library faculty were advocates of the effort, among them Lucile Foster Fargo (1880-1962), former associate director and acting director of the library school, who left Peabody in 1933 for Columbia University. In 1934, Fargo chaired a joint Committee of the American Association of Teachers Colleges and the ALA which was organized to identify the need for library instruction within teacher training. Fargo would go on to write The Library in the School, which today is still described as the "definitive text...in school library literature" [Woolls and Loertscher, 2005, p.7].
Columbia Teachers College had established the first library professorship in 1932 and Shores believed that Peabody, as a teaching college, was the most likely place for a similar program to gain a foothold:
The chief obstacles to school library development appear to be: (1) ignorance of the library's possibilities on the part of the school administrator and teacher; and (2) inadequate understanding of the school program on the part of the librarian. Here then appeared to be an opportunity for a library school located on a teacher-training campus: the integration of teaching and library training. Increasingly, the Peabody Library School has been able to realize its twofold purpose of training school librarians who would understand and sympathize with educational problems, and of instructing school administrators and teachers in library methods. [Shores, 1936: 130]
Shores also used his pulpit in the journal to disseminate gray library literature to education professionals. He reprinted Margaret Rufsvold's History of School Libraries in the South, along with other publications written by Peabody Library faculty and masters degree candidates, under the title "Peabody Contributions to Librarianship" [vii] . The program continued intermittently as an independent publication in the 1940s under the Peabody Press imprint [PSLS Yearbook, 1945-46].
The model for information sharing and the role of the librarian as provider of information as well as creator of content was an important characteristic of the PSLS. One of the School’s most prolific writers and for many years the guiding light of the School was Frances Neel Cheney who wrote the “Current Reference Books” column for the Wilson Library Bulletin beginning in 1942 and later went on to publish the classic reference guide Fundamental Reference Sources in 1971. Cheney also as served as president of the Association of American Library Schools (1956-57) and received the Isadore Gilbert Mudge Citation for Distinguished Contributions to Reference Librarianship from the Reference Services Division of the American Library Association in 1962, among numerous awards and honors. Dr. Edwin Gleaves published throughout his tenure at the PSLS and continued his contribution to library literature in his work as the state librarian. His essays in Tennessee Libraries and his examinations of faculty research and microform usage for the PSLS were complemented by his work with John Mark Tucker, Reference Services and Library Education (1983).
Figure 3. Frances Neel Cheney meets with Peabody Library School students, 1962 [Peabody College photographs, PC.ADP.LIBS.008]
Outreach, Collaboration and the Peabody Model
The Peabody Library School’s curriculum was designed to take advantage of local resources and to draw interesting speakers to Nashville. Students were also encouraged to take advantage of GPCT lectures. Among the school speakers were Dr. H.C. Nixon, Vanderbilt University, who spoke on his experience as a librarian at the Peace Conference in Paris after WWII (1947); Hodding Carter, Pulitzer Prize winner, who spoke on “The Citizen and His Library” at The Library and Public Relations conference organized by the library school (1948); Luther Evans, Librarian of Congress (1949); Dr. Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan, President of the Indian Library Association and Professor of Library Science at the University of Delhi (1950); Madame Suzanne Briet, Printed Books Division, Bibliotheque Nationale (1951); and Flora B. Ludington, President Elect of the ALA (1953). Local speakers were drawn from surrounding area libraries and publishing houses. Students were encouraged to participate in professional development through the American Library Association, the Tennessee Library Association, and the Tennessee Education Association as a way to train and network with colleagues. Once connected to these organizations as students, alumni often continued to participate in activities, serving in elected offices.
In 1970, the Ingram Book Company donated funds to hold an annual lecture entitled The C.C. Williamson Memorial Lectures (named for the Carnegie Corporation economist). The first lecturer was Frank Bradway Rogers, who spoke on “Librarianship in a World of Machines.” Later speakers included Richard H. Dillon, Head of California State Library’s Sutro Library, San Francisco, Dr. David Diringer, Lecturer in Semitic Epigraphy, University of Cambridge, England, Allen Tate, renowned poet, critic and former editor of the Sewanee Review, and K. C. Harrison, Director of the Westminster Public Library, London, England [Gleaves Papers, Box 16(25)].
Library school classes included regular visits to local libraries, publishing houses, and museums to familiarize students with best practices and potential employers. Off site visits were expanded during the summer months, when student numbers grew with the influx of employed library staff seeking degrees. It was a demanding schedule. The Peabody Library School Yearbook noted that “students should be available on all days during the Summer Quarter (except Sundays) for field trips or for special lectures or for work with special collections, and for service on STUDENT LIBRARY COMMITTEES which supervise and care for the general condition of the Library School Quarters” [PLS Yearbook, 1949-50, p. 109].
Students were required to attend a minimum of ten trips with the goal of visiting at least one of each type of institution. Most frequently visited locations were: The Children’s Museum, Fisk University Library, Kain Bindery,the Methodist Publishing House, Nashville Public Library, Tennessee Book Company, Tennessee State Library and Archives, and A and I State College (later Tennessee State University) Library. The visits gave students the opportunity to see how different libraries functioned and to meet informally with potential employers.
Beyond standard course offerings, students were required to participate in supervised practicum work during the spring semester. Over 100 different locations within Tennessee participated in this program since its inception in 1933 (see fig. 4). Popular locations included the Joint University Libraries (now Vanderbilt’s Jean and Alexander Heard Library), the Nashville Public Library, Peabody College Library, Peabody Demonstration School Library, Tennessee State Library and Archives, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Libraries, and Vanderbilt University Medical School Library. The practicum program allowed students to experience and support library work in Tennessee as well as in other states around the country. Over the course of the program over 500 students contributed thousands of hours of volunteer work in the state’s libraries alone. The following map notes the practicum locations identified in the School’s Kat-Logs, between 1933 and 1964.
Figure 4. Practicum Locations, 1933-1964
Over its years of operation, the Peabody Library School graduated over 3,300 students [Gleaves, 1973] and many chose to stay in the Southeast. A 1948 survey of the Southeastern State Cooperative found that 613 of the 4,600 librarian respondents had attended PSLS, making it the top school among librarians in the Southeast at that time [Gleaves and Tucker, 1983]. The work of the GPCT placement bureau combined with regular recruitment visits scheduled by the School and practicum “foot in the door” opportunities proved very effective in placing graduates: in 1971, over 90 percent of graduating students were finding work [Gleaves Papers, Box 14]. Placement locations between 1936 and 1964, when job locations were posted in the School’s Kat-Logs, are identified in figure 5.
Figure 5. Peabody Library School graduates found positions throughout Tennessee, 1936-1964.
The Later Years
The 1960s and 1970s saw an increasingly diverse student body at the PSLS, growing out of earlier efforts in Korea in the 1950s. During the 1970s, students from Latin America, Africa, Europe, Japan, India, Korea, Iran, the Netherlands, and other countries were represented in the PSLS. Their presence brought an increased awareness of the international aspects of librarianship. As the job market began to falter in the 1970s, the School responded with new courses designed to reach a broader audience. Breadth of curriculum was always a strength of the PSLS program. The advent of the PC computer led to new courses in the 1970s in computer technology and information sciences. “Mini courses” carrying one-hour credit were offered to give students areas of specialization. Off-campus instruction was offered beginning in the fall of 1977 in Memphis, and was later offered in Conway, Arkansas and Huntsville, Alabama. These were among the first satellite education programs for librarians.
As late as 1981, library school administration was scouting additional locations in Blacksburg and Radford, Virginia. Faculty had doubled under the leadership of Dr. Gleaves who promoted the Title IIB Higher Education Act to draw minority students to PSLS. Many of these students were already working in the Nashville Public Library, Tennessee State University, and Fisk University, and many returned to those positions after completing their coursework.
A report from the American Library Association (ALA) Committee on Accreditation (1966) encouraged the School to find additional space or consider reducing enrollment. Library School administration was well aware of the problem. The space "which was so fine and adequate in the 1930's for the less than 40 students is more than bulging at its seams with the 237 students enrolled during the Summer Quarter and the more than 120 in the regular school year [of 1965]" [Gitler, 1965, p. 71]. Eventually, the school did move in 1976 to the Industrial Arts Building (now Mayborn Hall), located across the Peabody lawn, allowing the school to add offices for each faculty member, a conference room, work and storage rooms and a student commons.
Despite all the efforts to keep the school running, the PSLS closed in 1988, following on the heels of a 1979 merger between Peabody College and Vanderbilt University. Students and alumni rallied to save the program and a two-day ceremony was conducted to honor the history of the PSLS [Library Journal, 1987]. Looking back on the events from today, the Peabody Library School's closure was part of a larger national trend that saw fourteen such schools close between 1978 and 1991 [Carpenter, 1996]. And while the decision to close was difficult for all involved parties, it was particulary hard on the Peabody faculty, many of whom lost their jobs. Dr. J. Michael Rothacker, who at the time of the merger was Associate Professor of the PSLS and Chair of the Peabody Library Committee, spoke eloquently about the struggles of the faculty to save the school in his oral history, housed at Vanderbilt's Special Collections [Dohrmann and Rothacker, 2006].
Alumni today are justifiably proud to have been part of the School’s history. The School’s work to raise standards for libraries around the country has generated improved service and increased demand for all libraries. The publications of the faculty and students are still accessed by today’s students of library science. Most importantly for Tennessee, alumni of the Peabody School of Information Science may be found in libraries across the state and in organizations around the world. Their work continues to bring information and support to generations of students, faculty, community members, and library leaders.
“Peabody Library School to Close.” (1987) Library Journal 112, 18
American Library Association. Accredited Library and Information Studies Master's Programs from 1925 through Present. (2009) Accessed January 1, 2009 through http://www.ala.org/ala/educationcareers/education/accreditedprograms/directory/1925present/index.cfm
Campbell, Doak S. (1933).Standards for the Training of School Librarians in the South. Peabody Journal of Education. 10(5), 298-302
Carpenter, Kenneth E. (1996). A Library Historian Looks at Librarianship. Daedalus. (125)4, 77-102
Cundiff, Ruby Ethel (ed.) (1936). School Libraries in the South.Parks, Martha. School Library Service in Tennessee Peabody Journal of Education
Dohrmann, Molly and Rothacker, J. Michael. (2006) Interview with J. Michael Rothacker. Voices of Peabody. Special Collections and University Archives, Jean and Alexander Heard Library, Vanderbilt University. http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/peabody/vop/transcripts/rothacker.html
Gitler, Robert L. (1965). Quo Vadimus?--Library Education and New Directions. Peabody Journal of Education. (43)2, 67-77
Dr. Edwin Sheffield Gleaves Papers. Special Collections and University Archives, Jean and Alexander Heard Library, Vanderbilt University
Gleaves, Edwin S. (1973). “George Peabody College, School of Library Science.” Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. Vol 9. Kent, Allen, Harold Lancour and Jay E. Daily, Editors. (New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.)
Gleaves, Edwin S. and Tucker, John Mark (1983). Reference Services and Library Education. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books
Kuhlman, A.F. (1942). The Library and College Education. Peabody Journal of Education. (19)4, 196-208
Lynch, Beverly P. (2008). Library Educations: It’s Past, Its Present, and Its Future. Library Trends. (56)4, 931-954
McMurry, Charles A. (1919) The New Library for George Peabody College. Type Studies and Lesson Plans. IV(3). Special Collections and University Archives, Jean and Alexander Heard Library, Vanderbilt University
Peabody College Photographs. Academic Departments & Programs—Library School. PC.ADP.LIBS.008. Special Collections and University Archives, Jean and Alexander Heard Library, Vanderbilt University
Peabody Department of Library and Information Science Record Group 5856 (1934-1988). PSLS Yearbook, 1945-46. Special Collections and University Archives, Jean and Alexander Heard Library, Vanderbilt University
Peabody Department of Library and Information Science Record Group 5856 (1934-1988). PSLS Yearbook, 1948-49. Special Collections and University Archives, Jean and Alexander Heard Library, Vanderbilt University
Peabody Department of Library and Information Science Record Group 5856 (1934-1988). PSLS Yearbook, 1949-50. Special Collections and University Archives, Jean and Alexander Heard Library, Vanderbilt University
Shores, Louis (1934). Library Education. Peabody Journal of Education. (11)6, 282-284
Shores, Louis (1934). Library Education. Peabody Journal of Education. (12)2, 98-99
Shores, Louis (1934). Library Education. Peabody Journal of Education. (12)3, 136-138
Shores, Louis (1936). Library Instruction for Teachers. Peabody Journal of Education (14)3,128-133
Towne, Jackson E. (1931). The Location and Development of Accreditable Library Training Agencies in the South. Peabody Journal of Education. (9)3, 163-167
van Slyck, Abigail A. (1991). "The Utmost Amount of Effectiv [sic] Accomodation": Andrew Carnegie and the Reform of the American Library. The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. (50)4, 359-383
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Wright, Edward A. (1945). Evaluation and Revision of the Library School Curriculum. Nashville, TN: Peabody Press (4)1
i. The other schools were: The Southern Library School (estab. 1905; later called The Atlanta Library School, it moved to Emory University in 1930); The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1904); and The University of Kentucky (1911). These classes were available to white students only; the first southern school for African American library students was the Louisville Public Library (1905). [Gleaves and Tucker, 1983]
ii. Towne served as director of the Peabody Library School from 1928 to 1932.
iii. Doak would later become the Dean of the Graduate School at George Peabody College and go on to become president of the Florida State College for Women and Florida State University.
iv. Those schools were: The University of California--Berkeley, The Carnegie Institute of Technology (now discontinued), the Carnegie Library of Atlanta (later transferred to Emory University), Case Western ReserveUniversity (discontinued in 1986), Pratt Institute, Simmons College, the University of Washington, the University of Wisconsin--Madison, Drexel University, the University of Illinois, Los Angeles Public Library (discontinued) and the New York Public Library (transferred to Columbia University).
v. The list included the Carnegie Library of Atlanta, which transferred to Emory University in 1930, George Peabody College for Teachers, Hampton Institute[v] (discontinued in 1939), and North Carolina College for Women (discontinued in 1933). [American Library Association, 2009]
vi. Shores went on to become dean of Florida State (1947-1967).
vii. The Peabody Contributions to Librarianship series included: Rufsvold, Margaret Irene. History of School Libraries in the South (1934) (no 1 in series); Cundiff, Ruby Ethel. Manual of Techniques in Library Organization (1945) (no 2); Harris, Mabel. Non-professional Library Instruction in Teachers Colleges (1934) (no 3); Merriwether, Lucile. High School Library Service in Tennessee Rosenwald Demonstration Units (1934) (no 4); Drury, F.K. W. The Library in the Fraternity House (1935) (no 5); Cundiff, Ruby Ethel. School Libraries in the South (1936) (no 6); Flack, Howard W. Library Guide to Physical Education (1939) (no 7); Shane, M.L. The Audio-Visual Library an Acquisition Plan (1940) (no 8)