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TL v65n1: Celtic and Roman Religions in Roman Britain
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Academic Library Core Collection for Celtic and Roman Religions in Roman Britain

Kim Woodring


As the increasing cost of databases is taxing many academic libraries’ budgets, it may be time to revisit our collection development policies for print materials in subject areas where the information requests are likely to be found in print materials. History, in particular, is a subject where the materials retain their value with age. Even though we rely heavily on proprietary databases with their full-text articles, there is still a place for the specialized print collection in academic libraries. Levine-Clark (2014) comments: 

Perhaps counterintuitively, as libraries are faced with smaller budgets and ever-increasing amounts of digital content to acquire, they will refocus their efforts on special collections. Defined broadly to include not just rare and valuable books, a library’s special collections will include any material in any format that helps distinguish the library from every other…. The university with a library that can provide unique resources and broad range of content in an area of scholarly interest will set itself apart in attracting faculty and students. To serve this goal, libraries will invest more in rare books, manuscripts, archives, and mainstream publications supporting crucial subject areas, as well as other resources, such as audio, video, and data sets, that serve the needs of researchers in a particular area of focus. This shift will funded at the expense of other content, such as scholarly journals and monographs in less emphasized areas (p. 433).

Presented here is a bibliography representing a core collection on the Celtic and Roman religion in Roman Britain. This religion, which was formed from the mixing of Celtic and Roman religions, was truly a new religion. It was formed from two powerful but different religions. The Celts believed in nature and the power it held within everything in their world. The Romans believed in the power of their pantheon of gods and goddesses. When these two factors merged it produced a religion unlike any other in the world during the Iron Age. This bibliography will list the resources to form a core collection to be used for researching the Celtic religion and Roman religion. It will also provide resources for researching what became the religion of Roman Britain and how it can be examined through burials. It provides a variety of information from historians and archaeologist who have studied these religions in depth. Many academic libraries may already include several of the primary sources in their collections, which will minimize the cost of setting up this specialized collection.


Levine-Clark, M. (2014). Access to everything: Building the future academic library collection. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 14(3): 425-437.


Adkins, L., & Adkins, R. A. (1996). Dictionary of Roman religion. New York, NY: Facts on File.

Adkins, L., & Adkins, R. A. (1994). Handbook to life in ancient Rome. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Alcock, L. (1971). Arthur's Britain: History and archaeology, A. D. 367-634. London, England: Allen Lane. 

Aldhouse-Green, M. J. (1976). A corpus of religious material from the civilian areas of Roman Britain (British Archaeological Reports No. 24). Oxford, England: British Archaeological Reports.

Aldhouse-Green, M. J. (1993). Celtic myths. London, England: British Museum Press.

Aldhouse-Green, M. J. (Ed.). (1995). The Celtic world. London, England: Routledge.

Aldhouse-Green, M. J. (1992). Dictionary of Celtic myth and legend. London, England: Thames and Hudson.

Aldhouse-Green, M. J. (1986). The gods of the Celts. Gloucester, England: Sutton Publishing.

Aldhouse-Green, M. J. (2003). The gods of Roman Britain. Aylesbury, England: Shire Publications.

Aldhouse-Green, M. J. (1997). The world of the Druids. London, England: Thames and Hudson.

Allen, T. G., & Kamash, Z. (2008). Saved from the grave: Neolithic to Saxon discoveries at Spring Road Municipal Cemetery, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, 1990-2000. London, England: Oxford University School of Archaeology for Oxford Archaeology.

Arnott, P. D. (1970). The Romans and their world. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.

Barber, B., & Bowsher, D. (2000). The Eastern Cemetery of Roman London: Excavations 1983-1990 (MoLAS Monograph 4). London, England: Museum of London Archaeology Service.

Bateman, T. (1978). Ten years diggings in Celtic and Saxon grave hills, in the couties of Derby, Stafford, and York, from 1848 to 1858. London, England: Moorland Publishing.

Beard, M., North J., & Price, S. R. F. (1998). Religions of Rome (Vols 1-2). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Bede, the Venerable Saint. (1971). The Venerable Bede’s Ecclesiastical history of England (2nd ed.) (J. A. Giles, Ed.). New York, NY: AMS Press. (Original work published 1849)

Bhabha, H. K. (1994). The location of culture. London, England: Routledge.

Blair, P. H. (1963). Roman Britain and early England, 55 B.C.-A.D. 871. Edinburgh, Scotland: Thomas Nelson and Sons.

Bray, W., & Trump, D. (1970). A Dictionary of archaeology. London, England: Allen Lane.

Catullus, G. V. (1893). Catullus (E. T. Merrill, Ed.). Boston, MA: Ginn and Company.

Chadwick, N. K. (1963). Celtic Britain (Ancient Peoples and Places, Vol. 34). New York, NY: Frederick A. Praeger.

Chadwick, N. K. (1970). The Celts. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books.

Chapman, R., Kinnes, I., & Randsborg, K. (Eds.). (1981). The Archaeology of death. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Charles-Picard, G. (1969). The ancient civilization of Rome. New York, NY: Cowles Book Co.

Christ, K. (1984). The Romans: An introduction to their history and civilization. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Cicero, M. T. (1928). De Re Publica, De Legibus (C. W. Keyes, Trans.). New York, NY: G. P. Putnam’s Son.

Cicero, M. T. (1972). The nature of the Gods (H. C. P. McGregor, Trans.). Middlesex, England: Penguin Books. 

Cicero, M. T. (1998). The Republic and the laws (N. Rudd, Trans.) Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Clarke, G. (1979). The Roman cemetery at Lankhills. Oxford, England: Oxford Clarendon Press.

Clayton, P. A. (1976). Archaeological sites of Britain. London, England: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Collingwood, R. G. (1932). Roman Britain (New ed., Revised). Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. 

Collingwood, R. G., & Myres, J. N. L. (1937). Roman Britain and the English settlements (2nd ed.). Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. 

Collingwood, R.G., & Richmond, I. A. (1930). The archaeology of Roman Britain. London, England: Methuen & Co.

Collingwood, R. G., & Wright, R. P. (1965). The Roman inscriptions of Britain. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.

Cottrell, L. (1966). A Guide to Roman Britain. Philadelphia, PA: Chilton Books.

Coulson, W. D. E., & Freiert, P. N. (1987). Greek and Roman art, architecture and archaeology: An annotated bibliography (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Garland Publishing.

Crumley, C. L. (1974). Celtic social structure: The generation of archaeologically testable hypotheses from literary evidence. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Crummy, P., Benfield, S., Crummy, N., Rigby, V., & Shimmin, D. (2007). Stanway: An elite burial site at Camulodunum (Britannia Monograph Series No. 24). London, England: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies.

Cunliffe, B. W. (1969). Roman Bath. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  

Cunliffe, B. W. (1972). Cradle of England: An introduction through archaeology to the early history of England and a brief guide to selected sites in the south. London, England: British Broadcasting Corporation.

Cunliffe, B. W. (1974). Iron Age communities in Britain: An account of England, Scotland and Wales from the seventh century BC until the Roman conquest. London, England: Routledge and Keagon Paul. 

Cunliffe, B. W. (1975). Rome and the barbarians. London, England: Bodley Head.

Cunliffe, B. W. (1988). Greeks, Romans and Barbarians: Spheres of interaction. New York, NY: Metheun.

Cunliffe, B. W. (1995). Book of Iron Age Britain. London, England: B. T. Batsford. 

Cunliffe, B. W. (1995). Danebury: An Iron Age hillfort in Hampshire. London, England: Council for British Archaeology. 

Cunliffe, B. W. (1997). The ancient Celts. London, England: Penguin Books. 

Cunliffe, B. W. (2000). Roman Bath discovered. Stroud, England: Tempus Publishing. (Original work published 1971)

Cunliffe, B. W. (2008). Europe between the oceans: Themes and variations, 9000 B.C.- A.D. 1000. NewHaven, CT: Yale University Press.

Davies, J. (1999). Death, burial, and rebirth in the religions of antiquity. London, England: Routledge.

De la Bédoyère, G. (2003). Defying Rome: The rebels of Roman Britain. Stroud, England: Tempus Publishing.

De la Bédoyère, G. (2006). Roman Britain: A new history. New York, NY: Thames and Hudson.

Delaney, F. (1986). The Celts. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Dillon, M., & Chadwick, N. K. (1967). The Celtic Realms. New York, NY: New American Library.

Diodorus of Sicily. (1939). Diodorus of Sicily Books IV-VII (Vol. 3) (E. H. Warmington, Ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Dudley, D. R., & Webster, G. (1962). The rebellion of Boudicca. New York, NY: Barnes & Noble.

Dupont, F. (1989). Daily life in ancient Rome. Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Dyer, J. (1973). Southern England: An archaeological guide. London, England: Faber and Faber.

Filip, J. (1960). Celtic civilization and its heritage (R. F. Samsour, Trans.). Prague, Czech Republic: New Horizons.

Foster, J. (1986). The Lexden Tumulus: A re-appraisal of an Iron Age burial from Colchester, Essex (BAR British Series, 156). Oxford, England: B.A.R.

Fowler, W. W. (1971). The religious experience of the Roman people, from the earliest times to the age of Augustus. New York, NY: Cooper Square Publishers. (Original work published 1911)

Fraser, R. (2003). The story of Britain: From the Romans to the present: A narrative history. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.

Frere, S. (1967). Britannia: A history of Roman Britain. London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Garces-Foley, K. (Ed.). (2006). Death and religion in a changing world. New York, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Gildas. (1978). The Ruin of Britain and other works (M. Winterbottom, Ed. & Trans.). London, England: Phillimore.

Gilley, S., & Sheils, W. J. (Eds.). (1994). A history of religion in Britain: Practice and belief from Pre-Roman times to the present. Cambridge, England: Blackwell.

Glover, T. R. (1909). The conflict of religions in the Early Roman Empire. London, England: Methuen & Co.

Grant, F. C. (Ed.). (1953). Hellenistic religions: The age of syncretism. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.

Grant, F. C. (Ed.). (1957). Ancient Roman religion. New York, NY: Liberal Arts Press. 

Grant, M. (1976). The fall of the Roman Empire: A reappraisal. Radnor, PA:Pennsylvania. Annenberg School Press.

Grenier, A. (1970). The Roman spirit in religion, thought, and art. New York, NY: Cooper Square Publishers. (Original work published 1926)

Grinsell, L. V. (1974). Barrow, pyramid and tomb: Ancient burial customs in Egypt, the Mediterranean, and the British Isles. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Harding, D. W. (1972). The Iron Age in the Upper Thames basin. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. 

Harding, D. W. (1974). The Iron Age in lowland Britain. London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Harding, D. W. (2004). The Iron Age in northern Britain: Celts and Romans, natives and invaders. New York, NY: Routledge.

Haverfield, F. J. (1923). The Romanization of Roman Britain (4th ed.) London, England: Oxford University Press.

Henig, M. (1984). Religion in Roman Britain. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press.

Henig, M., & King, A. (Eds.). (1986). Pagan gods and shrines of the Roman Empire (Monograph No. 8). Oxford, England: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology.

Herm, G. (1975). The Celts: The people who came out of the darkness. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press.

Hope, V. M. (2009). Roman death: The dying and the dead in Ancient Rome. London, England: Continuum.

Hubert, H. (1966). The rise of the Celts. New York, NY: Biblo and Tannen. (Original work published 1934)

Hume, D. (1858). The history of England: From the invasion of Julius Caesar to the abdication of James the Second, 1688 (New ed.). Boston, MA: Phillips, Sampson and Company.

Hunter, J., & Ralston, I. (Eds.). (2009). The archaeology of Britain: An introduction from earliest times to the twenty-first century (2nd ed.). London, England: Routledge Publishing.

Hutton, R. (1991). The pagan religions of the Ancient British Isles. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishers.

James, S. (1993). The world of the Celts. London, England: Thames and Hudson. 

James, S., & Rigby, V. (1997). Britain and the Celtic Iron Age. London, England: British Museum Press.

Jewitt, L. (1870).Grave-mounds and their contents: A manual of archaeology as exemplified in the burials of the Celtic, the Romano-British, and the Anglo-Saxon periods. London, England: Groombridge and Sons.

Johns, C. (1996). The jewellery of Roman Britain: Celtic and classical traditions. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Johns, C., & Potter, T. (1983). The Thetford treasure: Roman jewellery and silver. London, England: British Museum Publications.

Johnson, S. (1980). Later Roman Britain. New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Johnston, H. W. (1903). The private life of the Romans. Chicago, IL: Scott, Foresman.

Jupp, P. & Gittings, C. (Eds.). (2000). Death in England: An Illustrated History. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Kendrick, T. D. (1927). The Druids: A study in Keltic prehistory. London, England: Methuen & Co. 

Kendrick, T. D., & Hawkes, C. F. C. (1932). Archaeology in England and Wales, 1914-1931. London, England: Methuen & Co.

Kerenyi, C. (1973). The religion of the Greeks and Romans (C. Holme, Trans.). Westport, IL: Greenwood Press.

Kerrigan, M. (2007). The history of death: Burial customs and funeral rites, from the ancient world to modern times. Guildford, CT: Lyons Press.

Koch, J. T. (Ed.). (2006). Celtic culture: A historical encyclopedia. Five volumes. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Koester, H. (1982). Introduction to the New Testament: History, culture and religion of the Hellenistic Age (Vol 1). New York, NY: Walter De Gruyter.

Laing, G. J. (1931). Survivals of Roman religion. New York, NY: Longmans, Green and Co.

Laing, L. R. (2006). The archaeology of Celtic Britain and Ireland, c. A.D. 400-1200. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Lewis, N., & Reinhold, M. (Eds.) (1951). Roman civilization: Sourcebook I: The Republic. New York, NY: Harper and Row.

Liebeschuetz, J. H. W. G. (1979). Continuity and change in Roman religion. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Lindsay, J. (1969). The Romans were here: The Roman period in Britain and its place in our  history. New York, NY: Barnes & Noble.

Littleton, C. S. (Ed.). (2005). Gods, goddesses, and mythology. New York, NY: Marshall Cavendish.

Liversidge, J. (1968). Britain in the Roman Empire. London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Long, W. (1876). Stonehenge and its barrows. London, England: H. F. & E. Bull Printers.

Lucian. (1925). Lucian in eight volumes (A. M. Harmon, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Macbain, A. (2005). Celtic mythology and religion. New York, NY: Cosimo. (Original work published: 1917)

MacCulloch, J. A. (1992). The religion of the ancient Celts. London, England: Studio Editions Ltd. (Original work published 1911)

MacLean, M. (1970). The literature of the Celts. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press. (Original work published 1902)

Matthews, C. (1995). The Celtic tradition. Shaftesbury, England: Element Books.

McWhirr, A., Viner, L. & Wells, C. (1982). Romano-British cemeteries at Cirencester. Cirencester, England: Cirencester Excavation Committee, Corinium Museum.

Metcalf, P., & Huntington, R. (1991). Celebrations of death: The anthropology of mortuary ritual (2nd ed., rev.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Millett, M. (1990). Romanization of Britain: An essay in archaeological interpretation. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Mills, N. (2000). Celtic and Roman artefacts. Witham, Enland: Greenlight Publishing.

Moore, F. G. (1936). The Roman’s world. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Morris, I. (1987). Burial and ancient society: The rise of the Greek city-state. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Morris, I. (1992). Death-ritual and social structure in classical antiquity. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Morris, J. (1973). The age of Arthur: A history of the British Isles from 350 to 650. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Morse, M. A. (2005). How the Celts came to Britain: Druids, ancient skulls and the birth of  archaeology. Stroud, England: Tempus Publishing Ltd.

Moscati, S., Frey, O. H., Kruta, V., Raftery B., & Szabó M. (1991). The Celts. New York, NY: Rizzoli.

North, J. A. (2000). Roman religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

O'Driscoll, R. (Ed.). (1982). The Celtic consciousness. New York, NY: George Braziller Inc.

Ogilvie, R. M. (1969). The Romans and their gods: In the age of Augustus. London, England: Chatto & Windus.

Oman, C. (Ed.). (1972). A history of England (Rev. ed.). New York, NY: Books for Libraries Press.

O’Shea, J. M. (1984). Mortuary variability: An archaeological investigation. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

Ovidius Naso, P. (1995). Ovid’s Fasti: Roman holidays (B. R. Nagle, Trans.). Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. 

Pearce, J., Millett, M. & Struck, M. (Eds.)(2000). Burial, society and context in the Roman world. Oxford, England: Oxbow Books.

Pearson, M. P. (1999). The archaeology of death and burial. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

Philpott, R. (1991). Burial practices in Roman Britain: A survey of grave treatment and  furnishing A.D. 43-410 (BAR British Series, 219). Oxford, England: Tempus Reparatum.

Piggott, S. (1968). The druids. New York, NY: Frederick A. Praeger.

Pine, J., & Preston, S. (2004). Iron Age and Roman settlement and landscape at Tottertown Lane, Horcott, near Fairford, Gloucestershire. Reading, England: Thames Valley Archaeological Services.

Posidonius. (1999). Posidonius, Vol. 3:The translation of the fragments (I. G. Kidd, Ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Potter, T.W., & Johns, C. (1992). Roman Britain. Berkley: The University of California Press.

Powell, T. G. E. (1980). The Celts (New Ed.). London, England: Thames and Hudson.

Priestley, H. E. (1967). Britain under the Romans. London, England: Frederick Warne.

Rankin, D. (1987). Celts and the classical world. London, England: Routledge.

Reece, R. (Ed.). (1977). Burial in the Roman world. London, England: Council for British Archaeology.

Rhys, J. (1884). Celtic Britain (2nd ed., rev.). London, England: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

Rives, J. B. (2007). Religion in the Roman Empire. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Ross, A. (1967). Pagan Celtic Britain: Studies in iconography and tradition. London, England: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 

Ross, A. (1970). Everyday life of the pagan Celts. London, England: B. T. Batsford. 

Ross, A. (2004). Druids: Preachers of immortality. Stroud, England: Tempus Publishing Ltd.

Rostovtzeff, M. I. (1960). Rome (J. D. Duff, Trans.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Rudsdale, E. J. (n.d.). E. J. Rudsdale Diaries (Reference Code 888/9,10,31,11, Essex County Archives, Essex Records Office). Chelmsford, England. 

Rupke, J. (Ed.) (2007). A companion to Roman religion. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Salway, P. (1981). Roman Britain. Oxford, England: Clarenden Press. 

Salway, P. (1993). The Oxford illustrated history of Roman Britain. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Scullard, H. H. (1979). Roman Britain: Outpost of the empire. London, England: Thames and Hudson.

Showerman, G. (1931). Rome and the Romans: A survey and interpretation. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Somerset Fry, P. (1984). Roman Britain: History and sites. London, England: David & Charles. 

Spence, L. (1970). The mysteries of Britain: Secret rites and traditions of ancient Britain restored. New York, NY: Samuel Weiser. (Original work published 1928)

Strabo. (1982). The geography of Strabo (Vols. 1-8) (H. L. Jones, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1917)

Stukeley, W. (1984). Stonehenge: A temple restor’d to the British Druids; Abury, a temple of the British druids. New York, NY: Garland Publishing. (Original work published 1740)

Tacitus, C. (1925). The histories (E. Capps, T. E. Page, & W. H. D Rouse, Eds.) (C. H. Moore, Trans.). London, England: William Heinemann.

Todd, M. (Ed.). (2004). A companion to Roman Britain. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Toynbee, J. M. C. (1971). Death and burial in the Roman world. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Tylor, E. B. (1874). Primitive culture: Researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, language, art and custom (Vols 1-2) (First American Ed.). Boston, MA: Estes & Lauriat.

Versnel, H. S. (Ed.). (1981). Faith, hope and worship: Aspects of religious mentality in the ancient world. Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill.

Virgil. (1904). Virgil’s Aeneid Books I-VI (C. E. Bennett, Intro., Notes, & Vocabulary). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Wacher, J. S. (1978). Roman Britain. London, England: J. M. Dent and Sons.

Wacher, J. S. (1979). The coming of Rome. New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Wacher, J. S. (Ed.). (1987). The Roman world. London, England: Routledge.

Ward, J. (1971). The Roman era in Britain. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press. (Original work published 1911)

Webster, G. (1986). The British Celts and their gods under Rome. London, England: B. T. Batsford Ltd. 

Webster, G. (1986). Celtic religion in Roman Britain. Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble Books.

Wheeler, M. (1932). Report on the excavation of the prehistoric, Roman, and Post-Roman site in Lydney Park, Gloucestershire. London, England: University Press.

Whimster, R. (1981). Burial practices in Iron Age Britain: A discussion and gazetteer of the evidence c. 700 B.C.-A.D. 43 (Vols 1-2). Oxford, England: B.A.R.

White, R. H. (1988). Roman and Celtic objects from Anglo-Saxon graves: A catalogue and an interpretation of their use. London, England: B.A.R.

Williamson, W. C. (1872). The Bronze Age tree trunk coffin burial found at Gristhorpe (3rd ed.). London, England: S. W. Theakston.

Wilson, R. J. A. (1975). A guide to the roman remains in Britain. London, England: Constable and Company.

Yaggy, L. W., & Haines, T. L. (1882). Museum of antiquity: A description of ancient life. New York, NY: Standard Publishing House. (Original work published 1880)


Kim Woodring, MA, is a graduate student at the University of Tennessee School of Information Sciences and Library Assistant III at Sherrod Library, East Tennessee State University. She can be reached at


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