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TL v56n2 Meeting the Needs of Diverse Populations
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Tennessee Libraries

Volume 56 Number 2



Meeting the Needs of Diverse Populations

compiled by

Bess Robinson
Reference/Instruction Librarian
University of Memphis

Bess Robinson
, Program Moderator 
Dr. Pamela Dennis, Library Director, Lambuth University
Sandy Cohen, Director, Library Services for the Deaf & Hard of Hearing/Equal Access ADA Coordinator, Nashville Public Library
Kevin Dixon, Technical Trainer, Staff Development, Memphis Public Library & Information Center
Thura Mack, Social Sciences Reference and Training Librarian, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Sherry Lou Macken, Head Library Information Specialist for East Middle/High School, Memphis

Abstract from Conference Program: Ever wonder how other libraries provide for diverse populations (i.e., faculty, non-native speakers of English, people with physical or mental disabilities, struggling readers in grades 7-12, or adults ready to cross the digital divide)? A panel of librarians will discuss strategies for reaching a variety of groups and providing leadership in the creation of outreach programs and services.

A Web-Based Program that Helps Struggling Readers

Sherry Macken, Head Library Information Specialist for East Middle/High School and a doctoral student at the University of Memphis, opened the session with an overview of Access3000TM, a Web-based program aimed at improving students' reading skills.

Access3000TM is produced by Achieve3000, a company that has created the first Web-based, individualized learning solutions scientifically proven to accelerate reading comprehension, vocabulary, writing proficiency and performance on high stakes tests for grades 2-12 (Research Validation, 2005). “KidBiz 3000” is the product geared toward grades 2-8; “TeenBiz3000” is for grades 9-12.

As Sherry demonstrated, these products allow students to have their own username and password, which they use to access the program from any Internet-enabled machine. Every time they log on, the system knows who they are and their grade and reading skill level, and it tracks all of their activities.

Students are sent daily reading assignments via a secure email program. Every day, students read about a different current event. Twelve reading levels are available, and each child receives an article that is matched to his/her reading level. For instance, a fifth grade girl reading below grade level is provided with the same graphics as the boy sitting next to her who may be reading on grade level, but the reading level of the content will be matched to her needs. Although the article is on the same topic, the sentences are simpler and the vocabulary words different.

Teachers and administrators are also provided with ongoing management reports and diagnostic data that enable individualized intervention and remediation based on a given student's needs. Every article comes with a follow-up comprehension and vocabulary assessment. Each student's work is tracked and teachers can see what their students scored. Teachers may access reports on how students are performing on a particular standard, benchmark, or expectation. Parent accounts may also be set up so that they may access their children's scores anytime or anywhere, as well.

Recent awards for these products include: AEP 2005 Distinguished Achievement Award for Best Educational Website for Reading, 2005 BESSIE software award for TeenBiz3000, and finalists in 2006 SIIA Codie Awards for Best Instructional Solution in Elementary and Secondary Language Arts and Reading.

For information on the these products and other reading intervention strategies, log on to


Achieve3000. 2005. <>

Achieve 3000. 2005. "Research Validation." <> (accessed May 23, 2006).

Faculty—A Diverse Population?

When she realized that most of her audience represented public libraries, Dr. Pamela Dennis, Director of the Luther L. Gobbel Library at Lambuth University , made a quick analogy. “Our faculty and administrators are like your city council. They don't always know what libraries can provide!”

Pam pointed out that, as with any group, stereotyping is dangerous. Faculty are as diverse as we librarians are. Some attended college in the 1950s and 1960s, prior to the use of personal computers and the Internet. Their degrees were achieved though perseverance and original research. Their way was the only way available, they were highly respected as scholars, and their students copiously took notes on lengthy lectures. Faculty who attended colleges in the 1970s and 1980s are called “Baby Boomers.” Known for challenging tradition, these faculty were the early users of the personal computer and Internet. They rebelled against the “status quo,” demanded more relaxed standards, and applauded change. Faculty who followed, graduating in the 1990s and early 21st century, know little before the electronic age. PowerPoint, videos, and DVDs are staples in the classrooms of these Gen Xers. Much of their research is done via the Internet. Like their students, they have little time to go to the library, and little of their research involves original sources. How do we serve these faculty as a whole?

Pam presented the major problems that we encounter with this diverse group first, then offered some solutions from the literature and from her own experience in a small academic library. Her handouts included both problems and solutions, and an extensive list of sources that were consulted in the process of planning this program.

First, faculty cannot be ignored. They are the leaders of the institution and everything depends on their cooperation whether it be passive or active. The scary thing is that most of these faculty know little about bibliographic research even in their own disciplines, because they have done little sophisticated research since their dissertations. Times have changed and many of the resources they used for their dissertations are no longer current nor effective. Most libraries have discontinued subscriptions to the Reader's Guide because of budgetary constraints and have introduced FirstSearch and many other online databases not available 10 years ago. Much current faculty research is based on laboratory, clinical, or field research that requires current resources. They use footnotes and bibliographies in literature rather than conduct original research because of time constraints to publish. If these scholars can do without bibliographic tools, maybe the tools are not so important after all!

Faculty may think they do not need these resources, but their students do. However, students are unimpressed with library resources if faculty are not using them. Indexing and abstracting tools and subject indexes are vital to our students. Sometimes it has been so long since faculty have used bibliographic resources in their own disciplines that they do not realize that their students are unaware of the resources. They do not observe their students in the library wasting valuable time because they do not know what resources to use in their own disciplines. For example, in my discipline area of music, the first place a student should start on almost any project is the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians . It includes extensive biographical information about composers, historical information about the time period, a list of compositions with dates, a bibliography for each article, and pictures. But it is such a basic resource that the faculty member might forget to mention it. Or, there may be a much more up-to-date edition of a resource of which the faulty member is unaware. It is up to the librarian to be familiar with major sources in every discipline.

It is important for faculty members to know the benefits of a product before they will buy into it. We know that it is extremely expensive to maintain multiple formats of periodicals. However, try canceling a subscription and see what happens. In our case, the cost of Nature magazine more than doubled in one year's time. We consulted with the faculty in that discipline and explained the situation. We carry the journal through EBSCOhost with a one year embargo. While it is not an ideal situation, it is much cheaper for the faculty member to buy an individual subscription to share with students than for us to carry an institution subscription for the one faculty member who actually comes to the library and uses it.

We also must understand that the roles are different between academic faculty and librarians. Faculty teach 3-4 classes, hold office hours with students, advise, conduct research and write papers, and attend meetings. They are considered knowledgeable, teach well, have scholarly renown, and have an ego “the size of a small planet.” Many of them do not know many people outside their own departments. We librarians play a service role and must “play well with others.” No matter how busy we are, we must serve everyone as if that person is the only person in the world. Remember that "one librarian acting in a non-collegial manner can derail the work of every department in the library" (Lorenzen  n.d.). Some faculty see librarians as subordinates, as simple research assistants or babysitters for classes. Many have encountered librarians who were unresponsive to faculty, had little enthusiasm for building coalitions, or have shown little interest or great involvement in teaching or recognizing needs for a particular discipline. And there is the ongoing discussion as to who can best update the collection, faculty or librarians.

How do we fix these problems? The best approach is to "know thyself.” Who are we as librarians and what role do we play in the overall scheme of the university?

Remember, we are all in the same business, both faculty and librarian—the business of education. We have a shared vision, trust, and respect. Each person brings different strengths and perspectives, and it is very important for the library and faculty member to work together as partners. The faculty member can help the librarian by providing a copy of the syllabus at the beginning of the term. That way the instruction/reference librarian can anticipate questions and match the skills taught in the library with the objectives of the class. The library can help by offering bibliographic instruction to the faculty and to teaching assistants. Even if they don't attend, offering the classes sends the message that the information is important. As an example, we offered a session on using census records for statistical information in student papers. Only one faculty member came. She told us that she really didn't have time to come but she knew we had spent a lot of time preparing, and she also knew that we were known for our handouts. So, she brought her lunch and got a very personalized session and had a great time.

Providing information to the faculty member allows that person to add links to library information in their syllabi, whether online or on paper. Offer to teach a class on library use for the faculty member and plan it early enough that it can be in the syllabus and part of the plan, rather than an afterthought. Be careful not to use too much library jargon when talking with faculty. Rather than “information literacy,” market sessions as workshops to raise test scores by improving problem-solving skills. All colleges and universities are working on problem-solving and critical thinking. Buy into that language and turn it in your favor.

Better yet, team teach with the faculty. The faculty member then becomes a coach in improving research and critical thinking skills in the subject matter. Critical thinking and research skills are reinforced through library work, and students learn information skills they can take with them. They learn what they need to find, retrieve, analyze, and use. The librarian explains the resources; the professor shows how the resource can be applied to the course.

Make sure you use all your strengths. We all chose specific disciplines as undergraduates, and many of us have a master's degree in a discipline outside of library science. Attend departmental meetings in your discipline. It is a great way to introduce new features related to that area with your colleagues. One of our library staff members is a weaver in her spare time. So, she offered to teach weaving to the textiles class and has done so now for several semesters. A former staff member had a degree in history and specialized in medieval literature, so she was invited to give a lecture in a history class. These staff members were brought into the classroom because of their expertise, not their librarianship.

Help the faculty to understand that it is “their” library and that you are there not only to help their students but to further their own research. It also gives the faculty member a chance to see the lack of knowledge by students of discipline-specific materials. As an example, we had a faculty member who never came to the library and was proud of it. One day, he brought his class for some instruction and stayed for the session. He was overwhelmed at what our little library had to offer through databases, resources, and interlibrary loan. He never misses a chance to tell other faculty about our reference librarian and what the library can do for them, and he started using some of the resources for his own research. Offer “gentle, persistent, diplomatic persuasion steadfastly avoiding any appearance of coercion,” (Cammack 1980) and you will win your faculty. Remember, the new role of the library is as a “teaching” library, because the librarian is the only professional available to students nearly around the clock.

To really work with your faculty, be alert, creative, and informed about what is happening on the university campus. You must have shared goals, shared vision, trust, and respect for each other. Get to know them one on one. Begin with the new faculty. Give them guided tours of the library, explain the library's resources and how they are beneficial, and introduce them to the library personnel. Our faculty know exactly who to go to in our library for library instruction, interlibrary loans, acquisitions, reserves, and new cataloging.

Learn what is important to your faculty and become an advocate for them. Support faculty initiatives such as Writing Across the Curriculum, interdisciplinary programs, Freshman Seminar, and Freshman orientation. Serve on faculty committees, especially on curriculum review committees. No new course or program is approved on our campus without my signature. That way, we all know whether or not the library has the resources to support the program.

All of my faculty librarians teach courses outside the library. While instruction in the library is extremely important, academic faculty need to see us outside our own domain. We need to be able to agonize together over grading, plagiarism, course preparation, and difficult students as well as enjoy lecture series, sporting events, and plays together. We have several controversial issues on our campus right now, and the library faculty are right there with the academic faculty. We serve on the same committees, eat at the same cafeteria table, teach the same classes, and are reviewed by the same Tenure and Promotion Committee. Why shouldn't we fight for the same values? We are equals.

Offer a luncheon or brunch for a particular discipline and talk to that group about library resources that are particularly applicable to them. This is your chance to talk about electronic resources and reasons you've had to cancel certain journal subscriptions. Faculty don't have time to keep up in their own areas and read library literature as well. They don't know that Nature magazine more than doubled in price last year. But they also probably don't know that it is available through our existing EBSCOhost database but with a one-year embargo. Their students still have access to a valuable resource. Let the faculty share in the decision-making process, helping to remove little used journals or formats to make room for others.

Form a Library Committee or Faculty Advisory Committee. Collaborate with faculty through ACRL's Alliances for New Directions in Teaching/Learning Discussion Group, AAHE (American Association of Higher Education Teaching and earning Roundtables), EDUCOM's National Learning Infrastructure Initiative, or the Coalition for Networked Information's (CI) New Learning Communities program. Create faculty services online such as course reserves, book orders, interlibrary loans, AV-bookings, and scheduling of library classes. Invite faculty to read and sign their new books. Start a book review series. We are doing both of these and have great success in bringing faculty in to the library. What better way than to highlight what THEY are doing. Then we sneak in related sources and just have them lying on nearby tables within sight of the participants.

Pam concluded by reiterating that whether we are academic librarians working with faculty, or public librarians working with elected officials we need each other. Without the faculty there would be no university and no need for a university library.

Helping Adults Cross the Digital Divide

One of Kevin Dixon's duties as Technical Trainer at the Memphis Public Library and Information Center (MPLIC) is to coordinate classes that teach customers computer skills and library employees how to assist with computer-related questions.

Even though the MPLIC provides Internet access through about 490 public computers in 19 locations, access is still an issue. While library employees currently register users manually, automated registration software is on the horizon.

Computer classes include Computer Basics, Word Basics, Internet Basics (I and II), E-mail Basics, 24 Hour Library, Job Searching on the Web, Health Info on the Web, and Genealogy on the Web. To see a description for each class and the schedule of courses, go to and click on the book at the top of the stack, then on Computer Classes.

Kevin described some necessary elements for libraries planning to offer computer skills classes, which would vary depending on the size of the envisioned program:

  • For a fairly large program (MPLIC offers about 20 – 30 classes a month), you will need staff to develop content, schedule trainers, train classes, register participants, and coordinate printing.
  • Find volunteers to offer classes on nights and weekends. Those times are difficult ones for staffing public service desks. Night and weekend classes also pose challenges for recruiting because not many people are comfortable with teaching and public speaking. Also, volunteers sometimes fail to show up. It is rare, but it does happen, so you need a back-up plan even for your most trusted volunteer. We send multiple reminders each month (1 month before, two weeks before, and the week of) in order to ensure attendance.
  • A budget for printing handouts, flyers, schedules. We print about 1000 one-page schedules each month that are distributed at all locations. We also print handouts for each class (rough estimate of about 5600 pages printed for one year). Total of 17,600 pages. 
  • Space to provide the class. The Benjamin L. Hooks Central Library has a Computer Lab with 12 computers. The branch classes are offered on the public computers.

Kevin added that a well-trained staff that can answer questions as they are asked is essential. The MPLIC developed a successful training program for library staff that covered:

  • Skills. Staff need to know how to assist customers with frequently-asked computer reference questions.
  • Proper mentality. These computers are here and they are not going anywhere. And while you may have heard the question “how do I print?” twenty times in the last hour, it is probably the first time that customer has asked that question.
  • Strategy. How do you handle customers who have never been on the Internet and expect you to teach them how to use it?

Kevin invited those interested to go to to find a link to the MPLIC Intranet page with descriptions of all staff trainings (with training documents attached, when available). The page also links to reports listed in the Related Resources list below.

Related Resources

Gates Foundation. n.d. Toward Equality of Access: The Role of Public Libraries in Addressing the Digital Divide. (accessed May 23, 2006). 

Heuertz, Linda, Andrew Gordon, Elizabeth Moore, and Margaret Gordon. 2002. Public Libraries and the Digital Divide:How Libraries Help. A Report to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation U.S. Library Program. (accessed May 23, 2006).

Moore, Elizabeth J., Andrew C. Gordon, Margaret T. Gordon, and  Linda Heuertz. 2002. It’s Working: People from Low-Income Families Disproportionately Use Library Computers. A Report to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation U.S. Library Program. (accessed May 23, 2006).

Reaching Out to Non-Native Speakers of English

Bess Robinson, Reference/Instruction Librarian at the University of Memphis, discussed ways of discovering demographic trends and outreach programs in Tennessee, then wrapped up by sharing additional ideas and resources.

She demonstrated how to locate demographic trends using the U.S. Census Bureau's “American FactFinder” (searchable by city/town, county, or ZIP) and “State and County QuickFacts” sites, the “Common Data Set” (for higher education), the Tennessee Department of Education  (statistics by county), and local Boards of Education.

Prior to this presentation, Bess sent a message to TLA-L inviting people to describe what their library does for non-native speakers of English. She highlighted the programs at Blount County Public Library, Obion County Public Library, Linebaugh Public Library, and Hamilton Public Library in Ontario, Canada.

Blount County Public Library: Joan Vansickle Sloan and Jean Closz wrote to describe some of the ways that Blount County Public Library (BCPL) reaches out to their Hispanic population. Perhaps the most successful was their 2005 Hispanic Festival. BCPL invited various organizations to exhibit, including Mundo Hispano newspaper, the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, churches that offer services in Spanish, and adult basic education. The local high school Spanish Club read children's stories in Spanish and English. There were Latin dancing lessons, an art exhibit by two Hispanic artists, a piñata, games, children's crafts, music, and other activities. Hispanic churches, groups, and restaurants helped with publicity. The event drew about 250 (about 50 from the Hispanic community) and received very positive feedback.

Blount County Public Library has compiled and maintained a Hispanic Community Resource guide and a list of Hispanic web sites, and has a Spanish-speaking part-time staff person. Community volunteers conduct bilingual story/crafts/activity hours in Spanish and Japanese. They have audiotapes, books, and movies in a number of languages, and their Friends group sponsors “Tablescapes” programs that feature exhibits and performances by cultures as varied as Chinese, Persian, African-American, Japanese, Hispanic, Russian, Jewish, Arabic, and Islamic. BCPL has also mounted art exhibits by students and adults in their Russian Sister Cities program and other cultures.

Obion County Public Library: “Miss Billie” (Jean Closz) Ragsdale emailed Bess about the ESL classes that Obion County Public Library provides for women during the school year. She described how tutors purchase and share materials for their three levels of students and plan twice-yearly brunches where everyone brings a dish from her country. The program is publicized by word of mouth, flyers, and the newspaper. Speakers have included representatives from:

  • West Tennessee Better Health Plans,
  • Obion County Adult Learning Center,
  • Obion County Agricultural Extension Office,
  • West Tennessee Immigrant & Refugee Rights Coalition, and
  • First State Bank.

Miss Billie shared stories of how tutors had helped students with various medically-related situations, purchased The Rosetta Stone (software that allows users to study languages online), accompanied parents enrolling children in school, and found furniture for families who'd just arrived.

Linebaugh Public Library System: Heather Lanier responded to Bess's email on behalf of the Linebaugh Public Library System (LPLS). Callers to Linebaugh have the option of listening to messages in English or in Spanish. Heather wrote that LPLS received an LSTA grant targeting their large Hispanic population. The grant allowed the library to purchase print and AV materials in Spanish (the Ingles Sin Barreras is the most popular), and to hire part-time translators to work as clerks during evenings and weekends, translate for the computer classes, and do the storytime.

In addition, a Gates grant provided LPLS with two PCs with Spanish interfaces (Word, Excel, etc.) with commands in Spanish.

Hamilton Public Library: Betty Jo Jarvis at Highland Rim Regional Library sent details of how the Hamilton Public Library (HPL) in Ontario, Canada, encourages parental participation by encouraging parents to teach traditional values and culture while adapting to life in Canada. The library provides kits with bilingual books, books in native languages, videos, tapes, and puppets. Each branch has a “play corner,” where parents and children can play and read books together in their native languages.

HPL's “Multicultural Early Learning Development” program introduces children and their parents to the concept of kindergarten. They learn together by completing workbooks and reading companion books to learn what to expect and what the child will learn. Completed workbooks are displayed at their schools.

Other strategies:

In general, library employees should learn about the customs (body language, eye contact, tendency to nod, perception of authority, hesitancy to ask for help, etc.) and information-seeking behavior of a given group. Ways of making non-native speakers feel more at home include:

  • bilingual signs, guides, and handouts;
  • self-directed and/or virtual tours;
  • orientations with information in writing;
  • specific language interfaces on computers; and,
  • access to sources of news from home.

Libraries can locate and assemble information about local social services and community information resources (like Blount County Public Library's “Hispanic Community Resources for Blount County ” guide, published in English and Spanish). They can partner with representatives of these organizations to present programs at the library or elsewhere, or volunteer in other ways, such as helping with homework, making suggestions for (or donations to) collection development, or participating in activities with children and their parents. Libraries can also build on other international or literacy related events happening in their community, schools, or neighborhoods. By inviting others, they set the stage for an exchange of culture—not just for the one community.

How can technology help? Wireless Internet access on bookmobiles could be used to conduct computer training and language classes. The Queens Library in Jamaica , New York ( ), provides interfaces in six languages with the click of the mouse!

Perhaps TENN-SHARE or TLA could host an international language/ESL vendor fair.

If no library employees speak Spanish, perhaps some could take continuing education classes. In addition to a demonstration, illustrations or photographs accompanying an activity can show how to do it. For storytimes, Susan Middleton Elya's books are recommended for non-Spanish readers, since they provide a glossary and pronunciation guide. The website is a wonderful source for ideas on how to get children and their parents excited about languages, books, literacy, and culture.

Academic libraries could host a tea or other special event to welcome internationals. They could get on the international student orientation program agenda and work with international student organizations to organize events in the library. They could partner with the ESL programs to develop a research requirement at each level, and create a class or module to support it. To ease translating library jargon, they could link to ACRL's Multilingual Glossary: Language Table (, which lists library terms in Chinese, Korean, Japanese, French, and Spanish.

Bess ended with a quick promotion of the teleconferences sponsored by the College of DuPage. The presentation that took place on April 7 of this year was “Serving Immigrant Populations.” Information on this particular program is available at, and copies of all College of DuPage teleconferences are available.

A list of resources for reaching out to non-native speakers appears at the end of this article.

Providing Services to People with Disabilities

Sandy Cohen, Director of Library Services for the Deaf & Hard of Hearing/Equal Access and ADA Coordinator for the Nashville Public Library, described a variety of ways that libraries can better serve people with disabilities—particularly those who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Beginning by asking audience members to imagine being deaf, visually impaired, or in a wheelchair, Sandy stirred thoughtful reflection on why libraries should serve—actually, enable —everyone, not just the able-bodied.

Sandy 's handouts included the 47-page Tennessee Directory of Services for People Who Are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing and a brochure on “Library Services for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing.” The Directory includes resources at the state level as well as regional resources in west, middle, southeast, east, and northeast Tennessee. Those interested may contact her for copies of either publication. The Directory includes information on the following:

  • assistive devices;
  • camps;
  • captioning services;
  • cochlear implants;
  • community service centers for the deaf and hard of hearing;
  • developmental disabilities;
  • disability services;
  • early intervention;
  • education, emergency, employment, legal, library, medical, and mental health services;
  • financial assistance;
  • interpreting;
  • parent support;
  • rehabilitation/independent living services;
  • sign language;
  • substance abuse;
  • theatres;
  • and more.

Sandy encouraged everyone to attend “History Through Deaf Eyes,” a “traveling social history exhibition” developed by Gallaudet University and on display at the Nashville Public Library from 3 March-17 April 2006.

The full text of Sandy's article based on this presentation is titled "Enabling Libraries: How to Serve Poeple with Disabilites." It appears elsewhere in this issue of TL.

Libraries Inspire Leadership

Thura Mack, Social Sciences Reference and Training Librarian at the University of Tennessee — Knoxville, brought the session to a close with some eloquent remarks connecting what libraries can do for their diverse populations with inspiring leadership throughout an entire community. Acknowledging that she was “preaching to the choir,” Thura reminded those present that “leaders liberate themselves and others.” She reiterated the importance of not just training staff well, but nurturing them and encouraging them to treat library users— and each other— well. Those who know Thura can just hear her saying, “Give back, stay informed, and stay excited. You're all heroes!”

Faculty as a Diverse Group Bibliography

Compiled by Dr. Pamela Dennis

“Collaborate or Perish! Infolit Unites Librarians, Teaching Faculty.” Library Hi Tech News (December 1999): 4+.

“Collaborating with Faculty: Ideas and Selected Bibliography.” UMASSAmherst Libraries. (Accessed April 1, 2006).

“Faculty/Librarian Collaboration.” B. Davis Schwartz Memorial Library, Long Island University. (Accessed April 1, 2006).

Aked, Michael, et al. 1998. "Faculty Use of an Academic Library Reference Collection. Collection Building 17(2): 56-64.

Association of College and Research Libraries. “Collaboration.” (Accessed April 1, 2006).

Banks, Julie and Linda Carder. “Library Luncheon and Update: Teaching Faculty about New Technology.” 1996. Journal of Academic Librarianship 22 (March): 128-130. (Academic Search Premier, Accessed March 7, 2006). 

Bodi, S. 1992. "Collaborating with Faculty in Teaching Critical Thinking: The Role of Librarians." Research Strategies, 10(2): 69-76.

Buis, E. 1990. "Collection Development Policies: Coordinating Teaching Faculty and Library Staff Interests at Southeast Missouri State University ,” Collection Management 13:11-17.

Buis, E. 1993. “Let's Make Sure We are Not Part of the Problem: A Librarian's Lament.” Collection Building 13: 21-23.

Cammack, Floyd. “Obtaining Faculty Support.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship (November 1980): 283.

Carlson, David and Ruth H. Miller. 1994. "Librarians and Teaching Faculty: Partners in Bibliographic Instruction." College & Research Libraries 45 (November): 483-91.

Carlson, S. 2003. New Allies in the Fight against Research by Googling. The Chronicle of Higher Education XVIX (28), A33-A34.

Connell, T.H. 1991. “Comparing the Circulation of Library Materials Ordered by Faculty and Librarians.” Collection Management 14: 73-84.

Daugherty, Alice, Mitch Fontenot, and Paul Hrycaj. “Information Literacy Strategic Plan.” LSU Libraries. (Accessed April 1, 2006).

Day, Pam A., and Kimberly L. Armstrong. 1996. “Librarians, Faculty, and the Internet: Developing a New Information Partnership.” Computers in Libraries 16 (May): 56-58.

Diller, Karen. 1997. “Helping Your Campus Navigate Electronic Environments: Collaboration is a Necessity.” Research Strategies 15 (Summer): 187-192.

Dilmore, Donald H. 1996. “Librarian/Faculty Interaction at Nine New England Colleges.” College and Research Libraries 57 (May): 274-284.

Ducas, A.M. & Michaud-Oystryk, N. 2003. Toward a New Enterprise: Capitalizing on the Faculty/Librarian Partnership. College and Research Libraries 64(1): 55-74.

Ellis, Patricia and Maureen Beck. 2003. “Collaboration Between the Library and Business Faculty.” Academic Exchange Quarterly 7. (Accessed April 1, 2006).

Farber, Evan. 1999. "Faculty-librarian Cooperation: A Personal Retrospective." Reference Services Review 27(3): 299-234.

Feldman, Devin and Susan Sciammarella. 2000. "Both Sides of the Looking Glass: Librarian and Teaching Faculty Perceptions of Librarianship at Six Community Colleges." College & Research Libraries 61(6): 491-498.

Frey, Joanane M. 2000. Teaching Teachers to Use the World Wide Web. ERIC, ED 440 637.

Gerstein, Christine W. 1994. Liaison with Teaching Faculty and Collaborative Collection Development: An Annotated Selective Bibliography of Journal Literature. ERIC, ED 373 803.

Hardesty, L. 1995. "Faculty Culture and Bibliographic Instruction: An Exploratory Analysis." Library Trends 44, 339-367.

Hayens, Evelyn B. 1996. "Library-Faculty Partnerships in Instruction." Advance in Librarianship, 20: 191-221.

Hollander, Sharon A., Barbara R. Herbert, and Karen Stieglitz DePalma. 2004. “Faculty-Librarian Collaboration.” Association for Psychological Science 17 (March). (Accessed April 1, 2006).

Holtze, Terri. 2001. “50 Ways to Reach Your Faculty.” Poster session presented at the ACRL Conference, Denver, CO, March 17, 2001. (Accessed June 13, 2006).

Iannuzzi, Patricia. 1998. "Faculty development and Information Literacy: Establishing Campus Partnerships." Reference Services Review 26 (3/4): 97-102.

Isbell, Dennis. 1995. "Teaching Writing and Research as Inseparable: A Faculty-Librarian Teaching Team." Reference Services Review 23(4): 51-62.

Jacobson, Trudi, and Laura B. Cohen. 2000. “Teaching about the Internet: An Opportunity for Faculty Outreach.” College & Research Libraries News 61(4): 302-4.

Kotter, W. 1999. “Bridging the great divide: Improving relations between librarians and classroom faculty.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 25(4): 294-303.

Larson, Christine M. 1998. "What I Want in a Faculty Member: A Reference Librarian's Perspective. Reference & User Services Quarterly 3(3): 260.

Leckie, G. 1996. "Desperately Seeking Citations: Uncovering Faculty Assumptions about the Undergraduate Research." Journal of Academic Librarianship 22(3):201-209.

Levesque, Nancy . 2003. “Library Partnerships: Collaboration for Learning.” Presented to MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching) International Conference, Vancouver , B.C., August 5-8, 2003, Canada . (Accessed April 1, 2006).

Lister, L. 2003. "Reference Services in the Context of Library Culture and Collegiality: Tools for Keeping Librarians on the Same Page." Reference Librarian 83/84: 33-39.

Lorenzen, Michael. (n.d.) “Collegiality and the Academic Library.”, (accessed April 1, 2006).

Lyons-Mitchell, Kimberly and Mary J. Ferrill. 2001. “A Prescription for Faculty-Librarian Collaboration: Updating a Pharmacy Book Collection and Matching Curricular Changes.” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 65 (Fall): 267-270.  (Accessed April 1, 2006).

McCarthy, Constance. 1985. “The Faculty Problem.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship 11: 142-45.

Miller, Pat. 1998. “Build Library Support with T.L.C.” Library Talk 11 (May/June): 12. (Academic Search Premier, accessed March 7, 2006). 

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Resources for Reaching Out to Non-Native Speakers of English

Compiled by Bess Robinson


Web resources


  • Institute of Museum and Library Services.

    • “An independent grant-making agency of the federal government, the Institute has a defined, focused mission: to lead the effort to create and sustain a ‘nation of learners.'”

  • Skokie Public Library (Multicultural and ethnic resources assembled by Skokie Public)

  • Tennessee Department of Education

  • U.S. Census Bureau

    • American FactFinder.

    • State & County QuickFacts.

      • “Quick, easy access to facts about people, business, and geography.”
      • Search by county, by city. Click on a state to find all sorts of information including Population by Race and Hispanic or Latino origin based on the 2000 Census


  • WebJunction

    • The vision of this site is “To enable relevant, vibrant, sustainable libraries for ever community.”
    • Great ideas for services to Spanish speakers; immigrants.


Books and articles

Byrd, Susannah Mississippi. 2005. ¡Bienvenidos! ¡Welcome! A Handy Resource Guide for Marketing Your Library to Latinos . Chicago : American Library Association.

Downing, Arthur, and Leo Robert Klein. 2001. “A Multilingual Virtual Tour for International Students: The Web-Based Library at Baruch College Opens Doors.” College & Research Libraries News 62(5): 500-2.

Howze, Philip C., and Dorothy M. Moore. 2003. “Measuring International Students' Understanding of Concepts Related to the Use of Library-Based Technology.” Research Strategies 19: 57-74.

Pokorny, Renee E. 2003. “Library Services to Immigrants and Non-Native Speakers of English: From Our Past to Our Present.” Bookmobiles and Outreach Services 6(2): 21-34.

Redd, Althea. 2003. “Diversity Programming in an Academic Library: The Auraria Experience.” Colorado Libraries 29(4): 26-9.

Robertson, Deborah A. 2005. Cultural Programming for Libraries: Linking Libraries, Communities, and Culture. Chicago : American Library Association.

Taft Group. 2006. The Big Book of Library Grant Money Chicago: American Library Association.


ESLCC (English as a Second Language in Community Colleges) To subscribe, send the message “Subscribe ESLCC” to

NETEACH-L ("Using the Internet in the ESL/EFL Classroom) To subscribe, send the message “Subscribe NETEACH-L firstname lastname to <>.

TESL-L (Teachers of English as a Second Language list) To subscribe, send the message “SUB TESL-L firstname lastname” to <>.

Literature used by Billie Ragsdale, Obion County Public Library

Basic Grammar Work Sheets (1995), Alemony Press/Prentice Hall Regents

Contemporary's Edge on English, All Spelled Out, Book B (pronunciation)

Dictionaries: the following from Oxford University Press have workbooks, activity books, teacher's resource books, transparencies. All are excellent.

The Basic Oxford Picture Dictionary in English/Spanish, Gramer & Gaitan 0 19 434571 8

The New Oxford Picture Dictionary (monolingual or English/Spanish), Parnwell 0 19 434199 2

The Oxford Picture Dictionary for Advanced Students (English/Spanish), Shapiro & Goldsten 0 19 435188 2

Domini to Basico Ingles, Barron's (grammar in English and Spanish) 0 7641 2192 8

Ingles Hecho Facil, Patricia J. Duncan, Doubleday 0 285 48186 1

Ingles para Latinos, Barron's Educational Series, Inc. (English/Spanish for beginners and intermediates for conversation) 0 7641 1990 7

Master the Basics of English, Jean Yates, Barron's (written in English for tutors) 0 8120 9720 3  

New Interchange Student Book, Cambridge University Press (conversation only)

Practical English Book 1, 2, 3, Thomson & Heinle (more advanced)

Side by Side Books 1-4 (easy), Molinsky and Bliss, Prentice Hall Regents


Foreign Language Materials Resource List from Jean Closz, Blount County Public Library

Baker & Taylor Books Bess Press
Espanol Catalog 3565 Harding Ave.
Public & School Libraries 1-800-775-1100 Honolulu , HI 96816
Academic & Corporate Libraries 1-800-775-2300 1-800-910-2377

Shen's Books Catalog Asia for Kids
40951 Fremont Blvd. Master Communications, Inc.
Fremont, CA 94538 4480 Lake Forest Dr., #302 Cincinnati , OH 45242-0535

Muzzy Language Courses
Early Advantage Recorded Books
79 Sanford Street 270 Skipjack Rd.
Fairfield , CT 06824 Prince Frederick, MD 20678
1-888-248-0480 1-800-638-1304

Rising Moon, Luna Rising Midwest Tape
P.O. Box 1389 Spanish titles
Flagstaff , AZ 86002-1389 P.O. Box 820 Holland , Ohio 43528



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